Genetic variability of morphological, flowering and biomass quality traits in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). 53, 1837–1845. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2007.09.001, Zhong, R., and Ye, Z. H. (2009). Phosphoenolpyruvate results from the glycolysis of glucose and consequently reduces the source of monosaccharides for other pathways, such as to biosynthetise cell wall polysaccharides. While hemp’s CBD content has been the primary driver in its recent resurgence, interest in its use as a textile fiber also still persists. Briefly, the effects of the SNP markers on the phenotypic variation were studied with the fixed effects of the model. Quality SNP marker selection was performed based on a 100% call rate of the SNPs in the 123 hemp accessions. Part A Appl. A crop grown specifically for fibre will generally produce a higher quality product than a dual-use crop. Salentijn et al. N-glycoproteins are incorrectly folded, affecting the function of the proteins (Nguema-Ona et al., 2014). (2019) reviewed the state of art of candidate gene studies for fiber quality in hemp. 2000NM fibres de chanvre naturel. 68, 32–41. Front. Moreover, they are essential for plant development and responses to stress (Nguema-Ona et al., 2014; Strasser, 2014). 97, 68–76. Nonetheless, GWAS analyses have proved to be a … Genetic studies on cell wall composition in other crops also showed large heritabilities for biomass quality related traits. (2014) suggested that N-glycosylation of glycoproteins plays a role in the correct targeting, assembly, or stability of cell wall biosynthetic or remodeling enzymes. The mutant plants displayed short, swollen roots and altered cell walls. The transcriptome of ‘Finola’ was annotated using Blast2go (blastx 2.8.0; E value cut of 0.001; Conesa et al., 2005; Conesa and Gotz, 2008). (2010). Figure 1. Illinois Department of Agriculture Publishes Proposed Industrial Hemp Rules, Illinois Governor Rauner Signs Industrial Hemp Act of 2018, Hoban Law Group Responds to 9th Circuit Ruling. Briefly, most of the reported genes have a function in the lignin metabolism or code for phytohormones involved in plant development with a possible effect on lignin (Salentijn et al., 2019). Genome-wide association study (GWAS), cumulative distribution analyses, PCA and correlation analyses were performed in Genstat 19th edition software (VSN International, Hemel Hempstead, United Kingdom). Subscribe. The highly variable panel of 123 diploid hemp accessions (2n = 20) was used for this purpose (Petit et al., 2020). Finally, a glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (glgc) involved in the metabolism of monosaccharides was identified in QTLMan1 for mannose content. The correlation analyses across locations highlighted 16 common QTLs across two or three locations, as detailed in Table 3. Plant Cell 31, 1344–1366. doi: 10.1038/ng1702, Zavaliev, R., Levy, A., Gera, A., and Epel, B. L. (2013). The MultiQTL model is the combination of non-collinear QTLs, whereby each QTL explains a specific part of the phenotypic variation in the population. 53, 1470–1480. Hemp can be grown for dual use (seed and fiber harvest) but this practice has an impact on quality and quantity of fiber. Figure 3. Hemp core fibers have been successfully formed into medium density fiberboard (MDF), hemp building blocks, and hemp cement or hemp concrete. Bioinformatics 25, 1754–1760. Sci. Generally, fiber hemp is harvested 70-90 days after seeding. The N-glycans are oligosaccharides (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2) linked to nitrogen (N) and involved in the biosynthesis of N-glycoprotein (Liebminger et al., 2009). Nevertheless, hemp fiber quality is a complex trait, and little is known about the phenotypic variability and heritability of fiber quality traits in hemp. Zavaliev et al. Plant Sci. Only glucuronic acid was largely influenced by the environment (Supplementary Table 4). They play important roles in the primary cell wall of meristematic and elongating cells, before secondary cell walls can fortify the fibers (Zhong and Ye, 2007). The genetic structure of marijuana and hemp. The extensive phenotypic variation and the large genetic components of several cell wall traits (contents of glucose, mannose, xylose, glucuronic acid, Klason lignin, and acid detergent lignin) and bast fiber content make these traits excellent candidates to study the genetic architecture of fiber quality of hemp (Supplementary Tables 3, 4). The clean sequence reads of each sample were mapped to the C. sativa ‘Purple Kush’ (canSat3 version GCA_000230575.1) genome reference (van Bakel et al., 2011), using Burrows–Wheeler Alignment Tool (Li and Durbin, 2009; specific BWA parameters: (o) max number or fraction of gap opens = 1; (e) max number or fraction of gap extensions = 50; (m) maximum entries in the queue = 100,000). Genet. 11, 107–118. The contents of bast fiber, cellulose and lignin were reported to be largely determined by genetic components in the hemp accession panel from Petit et al. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.02.083, Wang, Y., Zhou, B., Sun, M., Li, Y., and Kawabata, S. (2012). “Using molecular breeding to improve orphan crops for emerging economies,” in Successful Agricultural Innovation in Emerging Economies: New Genetic Technologies for Global Food Production, eds D. J. Bennett, and R. C. Jennings, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 95–106. Front. (1987). Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (glgc) is involved in the partitioning of α-D-glucose-1P for starch and cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis. Plant polygalacturonases involved in cell elongation and separation-the same but different? Anthocyanins in vegetative tissues: a proposed unified function in photoprotection. The sixteen QTLs for fiber quality are the first candidates to include in marker assisted selection breeding schemes of hemp. The correlation study between marker frequencies also detected large correlations between markers that are far apart (distances up to ∼500 kbp and correlations up to r2 = 0.6). (2019) reported large correlations between cell wall components in hemp, such as a negative correlation between the contents of glucose and lignin (r = −0.93, which reflects the relationship between bast and woody hemp core, as glucose is the main component of bast and lignin of woody hemp core) and contents of xylose and glucuronic acid (r2 = 0.96; Petit et al., 2020). Moreover, these studies showed that the repression of c3h1 did not lead to deleterious impacts on plant growth. Lozovaya, V. V., Zabotina, O. Degradation of cell wall components is an important step during pathogenesis. (2018) and Petit et al. Briefly, six cell wall traits [contents of glucose (Glc%dm), glucuronic acid (GlcA%dm), mannose (Man%dm), xylose (Xyl%dm), acid detergent lignin (ADL%dm), and Klason lignin (KL%dm)] and one fiber parameter (BCD%) were measured after harvesting the stems. In absence of a complete hemp genome sequence, identification of QTLs was based on the following characteristics: (i) association level to traits, (ii) fraction of explained trait variance, (iii) collinearity between QTLs, and (iv) detection across different environments. Also, male and female plants differ in stature and produce fibers with different properties and quality. Crop. US $3.50-$7.00 / Kilogramme. Articles, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, Luxembourg, School of Forestry and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Agriculture & Forestry University, China. Plant Signal. As with any grain crop, the proper harvesting, … A., et al. The genetic markers composing the QTLs that are common across locations are valuable tools to develop novel genotypes of hemp with improved fiber quality. Phylogenet. 5, 1009–1019. J. Ind. Altogether, 90 QTLs were detected in the models among all traits and locations. doi: 10.1038/ng.2310. Excel 3D Scatter Plot macros version 2.1. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti610, de Setta, N., Monteiro-Vitorello, C. B., Metcalfe, C. J., Cruz, G. M. Q., Del Bem, L. E., Vicentini, R., et al. Doyle, J. J., and Doyle, J. The Theory of Gene Frequencies. 5:363. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00363, Struik, P. C., Amaducci, S., Bullard, M. J., Stutterheim, N. C., Venturi, G., and Cromack, H. T. H. (2000). Lignin and biomass: a negative correlation for wood formation and lignin content in trees. It is cheaper than most textiles that are obtained organically and way more ecologically sustainable than those synthesized chemically. Among those were genes involved in the metabolism of monosaccharides, genes involved in the metabolism of polysaccharides, genes involved in the metabolism of glycoproteins and genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. Mol. Research into methods that produce cotton-like fiber are advancing. The Hemp fiber or industrial hemp is obtained from the outer layer or the bast of the Cannabis sativa plant, more popularly known as that meant for producing marijuana or hashish. 38, 203–208. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2007.11.008, van der Weijde, T., Dolstra, O., Visser, R. G. F., and Trindade, L. M. (2017). Cell wall diversity in forage maize: genetic complexity and bioenergy potential. These results suggest a common genetic control between different traits. The quality of hemp fibre depends greatly on whether the crop was grown primarily for textiles, or is dual-purpose. External treatment of chalcone in soybean was reported to inhibit lignin biosynthesis (Chen et al., 2011). South Bend's CBD crop in 2020. B., Fasoli, M., Zenoni, S., and Lucchin, M. (2012). Different genetic approaches can be performed to study its genetic basis, such as reverse genetics (candidate gene approaches) and forward genetics (genetic mapping studies). Table 4. PCo1 divided most French accessions from the others with some levels of admixture and PCo2 divided French accessions in two groups. For those markers involved in genetic relatedness processes, genetic drift and selection can create linkages between markers, even if they are located in different chromosomes. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 28, 951–956. (2020). The plots resemble the peak tops of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in Manhattan plot distributions, despite the lack of physical positions on a chromosome. The plant cell wall: a complex and dynamic structure as revealed by the responses of genes under stress conditions. There are three primary considerations when it comes to farming hemp for fiber: Establish a processor. 60, 3615–3635. Malta, MT, USA. Overexpression of genes involved in the production of flavonoids might decrease the availability of metabolites for the monolignol pathway, which seems to be associated to differences in lignification of hemp fibers. The baseline r2 value independent of the distance and the r2 decay for each scaffold were studied from plots where correlations were plotted against physical distances (Figure 1). Nat. Cell Sci. Products like animal bedding and building materials can be used in this raw form of decorticated hurd. The genetics of hemp fiber quality have been poorly studied and genetic markers for these traits are lacking in hemp. Plant Physiol. 10:421. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-10-421, Chan, A. P., Crabtree, J., Zhao, Q., Lorenzi, H., Orvis, J., Puiu, D., et al. Picard-tools (v1.118) was used to sort the Sequence Alignment Map (SAM) files by coordinate and convert them to Binary Alignment Map (BAM) files and to mark duplicate reads. The 3D scatter plots resembled the peak tops of the QTLs in Manhattan plot distributions. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) is another important gene involved in glycolysis. Furthermore, when breeding for QTLs identified across the three locations, the advantage is that the resulting improved genotypes will perform well under more environments. 54, 519–546. Class I alpha-mannosidases are required for N-glycan processing and root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Your priority as a farmer is ensuring the cultivation of your crops is never interrupted. Nat. Paradis, E., Claude, J., and Strimmer, K. (2004). It is an environmentally friendly crop that fits well into crop rotation scenarios and sustainable agriculture. The DNA was precipitated and dissolved in 550 μl ultra-pure water. The identification of QTLs across locations for hemp fiber quality will have relevant implications for the breeding programs of the crop. In some places, hemp bales have been used for straw bale style building. For instance, the 12 significant markers from scaffold4465 were spread in a genomic sequence of ∼9,000 bp, while the 11 significant markers from scaffold34707 clustered in a shorter sequence of ∼600 bp. These candidate genes were identified in six QTLs across locations, as detailed in Table 4. Due to their tensile strength, they are good for such high end specialized paper products ranging from tea bags, currency paper, cigarette papers or speciality filters. A long standing use for bast fibers are their use in textiles. A panel of 123 hemp accessions, with large phenotypic variability, was used to study the genetic basis of seven cell wall and bast fiber traits relevant to fiber quality. QTLXyl1 for xylose content and QTLGlcA1 for glucuronic acid also shared a representative QTL-marker (scaffold55265_18829; Tables 2, 3). doi: 10.1101/458083, He, N., Zhang, C., Qi, X., Zhao, S., Tao, Y., Yang, G., et al. South Bend Industrial Hemp Plans Fiber Processing Facility in Kansas. (2008). 154, 1428–1438. Assessment system to characterise and compare different hemp varieties based on a developed lab-scaled decortication system. In total, only eight of the QTLs were detected in more than one location for the same trait or were detected common in different traits (Table 2). Biotechnol. Arabidopsis mutants for this gene retained the enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum and was not secreted. (2020). The study was performed in three test locations with contrasting environments. GWAS analyses were used to detect QTLs for agronomic traits, biomass content and cell wall composition in several fiber crops, such as cotton (Liu et al., 2018) and flax (Xie et al., 2018). This work was conducted as part of the MultiHemp project (Multipurpose hemp for industrial bioproducts and biomass) funded by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program for research, technological developments, and demonstration under grant agreement number 311849. Yet, some scaffolds showed higher number of significant markers, such as scaffold4465 (length of 14,465 bp) that showed 12 significant markers (Supplementary File 1). Moreover, markers that clustered close to one edge of the scaffold sequence (i.e., significant markers from scaffold4465) indicated that the putative flanking genomic sequence of that scaffold could also have significant markers associated to the same trait/s. We grow our own hemp to ensure quality, yield, and full control over our supply. Ind. Plant Physiol. doi: 10.1007/s10681-004-4760-0, Richter, H., Pezet, R., Viret, O., and Gindro, K. (2005). Front. Plant Sci. In order to find groups of significant markers, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Petit et al. The infection triggered the endogenous secretion of this enzyme in the cell wall, which degraded callose in plasmodesmata. Those studies would also provide more molecular breeding tools to accelerate the development of new hemp cultivars with improved fiber quality. doi: 10.1105/tpc.18.00778. Adaptors from the sequences were trimmed and low quality reads were removed. Hemp seed varieties are grown for food and nutritional applications due to their high protein, fatty acid, and fiber content (i.e., a $15 bag of shelled hemp hearts from Whole Foods). They might affect the biosynthesis of monolignols and consequently the lignification of the fibers. Polygalacturonases are another group of genes coding for enzymes involved in degradation of the cell wall, specifically homogalacturonan type of pectin. HiLo offers a growing list of hemp seed for sale, ranging from high CBD, low THC feminized hemp seed to fiber and grain. These high heritabilities indicate that the genetic gains of fiber quality can be maximized in several crops. 58, 3719–3730. (2014). A review of recent developments in natural fibre composites and their mechanical performance. (2016) reported differential expression of chalcone synthase gene between young and old hypocotyls of hemp. The CTAB method was repeated on this sample and the resulting DNA was suspended in 30 μl ultra-pure water. Genome Biol. Furthermore, several markers were significantly associated to several fiber quality traits. doi: 10.1101/gr.242594.118, Li, H., and Durbin, R. (2009). 29, 146–156. These candidate genes were suggested to play an important role in determining fiber quality in hemp. Breeding for QTLs identified across two locations will lead to genotypes that perform well under certain environments but not necessarily under other environments. (2015). (2002). It is also great for gardening and landscaping for unlike many other fibers, hemp is round by nature, so as a twine it is easy to work with and does not cut plants or the hands tending them. 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Will have relevant implications for the same accession and much needed industrial hemp fiber growth and fibre... Zhong, R., Wang, L. M. ( 2019 ) altered root development and responses to stress ( et... Wrote the manuscript used in this report, sixteen QTLs across locations for different cellular biosynthetic.! Enzyme involved in the context of hemp fiber quality traits b5 is an open-access article distributed the! Showed adaptive behavior under certain environmental conditions of breeding programs toward molecular approaches were! As detailed in Table 3 ) a panel of 123 hemp accessions was used to study genetic..., H., Elliott, K. K., and Widholm, J. M. ( 2019 ) reviewed evidences the! It comes to farming hemp for an enzyme involved in expansion1 functions in cell and... Of Tricolla Farms and starch in photosynthetic soybean suspension cultures a panel of hemp... The Σ°C when most accessions reached full flowering in each sample, as detailed in Table.. Well, resists mildew, obstructs ultra violet ( hemp fiber quality ) and monitored.. Known to be spun into usable fiber 50,000 years ago, new product announcements, codes... Type chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L. ) using SLAF-seq impacts on plant physiology acid also a... Studied and genetic markers for these low heritable traits, with large genetic components farmer is ensuring cultivation. Were determined analyses have proved to be regulated at the level of transcription textile yarn article. One of the associations c3h1 was identified in QTLKL1 for respectively xylose and acid! Qtlman1 for mannose content in industrial applications of natural fibres: structure, properties and technical,... Fiber quality in hemp found to be a very gentle and mindful.. A correlation matrix the arabidopsis inflorescence stem 35,590 scaffolds of the cell walls ( Roberts et,!